What is CBD? The Amazing Benefits of CBD Oil

WHAT IS CBD? CBD stands for cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component of cannabis. CBD doesn’t create a “high” like THC. But it provides many therapeutic benefits by working on different receptors within the body. It goes a lot deeper than the fact that it’s just not THC. There’s a lot that goes on in the body.

How do these endocannabinoid receptors work within the body? We have two different receptors. We have CB1 and CB2, and these are all throughout the body. They’re not just in the brain. They’re not just affecting the psychoactive portion of the body. They are affecting the brain, but also even more so, throughout the course of the body, in our inflammatory system, in our immune system.

CB1 is found mostly in the brain. It effects your mood. It effects emotion. It effects a lot of things when it comes down to your appetite, even coordination, movement and pain.

And then we have CB2. CB2 works on the body, works on inflammation, works on the immune system, and there is a correlation between CB1 and CB2. They communicate, of course. But one is more so for the brain and one is more so for the immune system and for the body.

But CBD oil does not directly affect CB1 nor CB2 receptors. What it does is it influences the body to naturally utilize more of its naturally occurring endocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids are things that our body can create. Whether our body uses them is a completely different story. So, CBD oil influences the body to utilize more of the endocannabinoids that are already existing.

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What is CBD

Cannabidiol, commonly referred to as CBD, is a molecular compound found in the cannabis and hemp plant proven to be an effective holistic treatment for a wide range of health conditions, ailments, and diseases. CBD has been scientifically proven to modulate and repair many physiological systems in the human brain and body, through the endocannabinoid system. Found in all mammals, the endocannabinoid system is made up of several receptors that react only to cannabinoids, such as CBD and the more well-known compound, THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). This is why these plant-based compounds have been known to help ease the pain of various medical conditions.

The key difference between CBD and THC is that unlike THC, CBD is 100% non-psychoactive and does not produce the adverse sensation of being “high.” CBD comes in many variations and can be taken as a general health booster or as an alternative remedy. CBD products include topical creams and ointments (beauty and medical), aromatherapy, tinctures (drops), vape oils, ingestibles (drinks and food), and many more.

Mental Health

A significant association has been observed in cannabidiol-treated patients and its antipsychotic properties. Clinical symptoms have improved through the ability of CBD to inhibit FAAH activity (fatty acid amide hydrolase – anenzyme that breaks down endocannabinoids) and increases anandamide signaling (endocannabinoid we produce naturally). Cannabidiol reduces psychotic symptoms through this gene and its interaction with serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, GPR55 receptors and vanilloid-1 receptors. Current Pharmaceutical Design conducted a study titled Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Etiology and Treatment of Major Depressive Illness. Endocannabinoid System (ECS) based therapies have potential beneficial effects through exogenous activation of this system through cannabinoids like CBD. Through the ECS the connection with FAAH gene protein inhibitor can be more effective than CB1 receptor in regards to antidepressant actions. It must be known that depression is a multi-factorial disorder that can manifest with different symptoms with both genetic and environmental causes. The use of cannabidiol on a consistent basis can aid in the reduction of anxiety and reactions to perceived causes that can lead to disorders such as depression. It is also important to address the individualistic holistic treatment for case-specific disorders such as mental illness, to truly find the proper dosage and therapy that will improve the overall quality of life.

Cardiovascular Health

Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology conducted a study titled Cardiovascular Pharmacology of Cannabinoids, which outlined Cannabinoid Type 1 receptors are present in vascular tissue and the myocardium.

It has been shown to be an anti-arrhythmic, which means it regulates abnormal rhythms of the heart. It also acts as a vasodilator that reduces blood pressure for those experiencing hypertension.

Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research journal declared that cannabidiol does not alter heart rate, body temperature or blood pressure. The World Health Organization stated through a study conducted late 2017 that CBD has a good safety profile and is generally well tolerated in regards human consumption.


Cannabidiol has many actions, including anti-inflammatory, neuroprotectant and antioxidant properties. Neurodegenerative disease is caused by a slow progression of neuronal function in specific areas of the brain which is recognized by cognitive, motor, and/or behavioral dysfunctions.

This attributes to one of the main causes of death in industrialized countries. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics has reviewed CBD for its prevention and management of main neurodegenerative disorders by protecting neuronal and nonneuronal cells against factors that effect these functions. This includes ß-amyloid (plaque found in the brain of AD patients) or 6-hydroxydopamine (a neurotoxic compound that destroys neurotransmitters like dopamine) and glutamate.

Important clinical trials have confirmed the potential pharmacological activity of CBD in the management of clinical symptoms and the slow-down of the progression of a variety of pathologies.


Associated Disease/Disorders
• Alzheimer’s Disease
• Multiple Sclerosis
• Parkinson’s Disease
• Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by elevated blood glucose levels; this occurs if the body either does not produce enough of the hormone insulin or because the cells simply do not respond to be able to use it (insulin resistance).

Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem outlined cannabinoid receptors play an integral role in Type 2 diabetes as chronic inflammation has been known to cause such an imbalance in our metabolism. When the Endocannabinoid System is dysregulated, plasma 2-AG (a cannabinoid produced in the body) levels increase along with lipids and glucose, but it also reduces insulin sensitivity and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in obese patients.

A phytocannabinoid such as CBD aids in the regulation of our endogenous cannabinoid 2-AG to correct this process.

Cannabinoids have been known to stabilize blood sugar levels regarding hypoglycemia and aid in the symptoms relating to nausea, irritability, low appetite, stomach pains, and stress.

Irritable Bowel Disease

Crohn’s Disease

The Journal of Endocrinological Investigation conducted a study titled Endocannabinoids and the Gastrointestinal Tract, that suggests Cannabinoid Type 1 and 2 receptors are abundant within the GI. This interaction includes protection from inflammatory responses and providing stability to abnormally high gastric and enteric secretions. It has also been outlined that PPARs (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors), another receptor site that aids in the expression of anti-inflammatory and homeostasis.



Celiac Disease

Cannabinoid Type 2 receptors within the Gastrointestinal Tract respond to cannabidiol to aid in the symptoms related to this gluten intolerant disease; common symptoms include nausea, bloating, cramping and tiredness.
Biologically this affects the FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase) enzyme that breaks down anandamide (endocannabinoids we naturally produce) by promoting anti-inflammatory effects.



Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Cannabinoids such as CBD demonstrated the ability to block gastrointestinal mechanisms that promote the sensation of pain in IBS. This concept is outlined from the more recently published academic journal, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research by direct relation to Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency. With the use of cannabidiol, it can build up our naturally occurring endocannabinoids such as anandamide (AEA) and 2-Arachidonoylglyerol (2-AG) to bring relief to this distressing condition.


Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management published a study titled Cannabinoids in the Management of Difficult to Treat Pain, through neurologist and researcher Dr. Ethan Russo.
Cannabinoids were found to bind to areas of the periaqueductal gray matter (an area of the brain that modulates pain transmission) which have been implicated in migraine generation.
Endocannabinoid levels were decreased in patients with chronic migraines suggesting that endocannabinoid dysfunction is involved. Exogenous cannabinoids such as CBD encourage the production of our naturally occurring endocannabinoids.
One of the most common symptoms of a migraine is nausea, pain, sensitivity to light and even vomiting. The British Journal of Pharmacology conducted a study to outline that CBD produces its anti-emetic (antinausea) effect by indirectly activating the somatodendritic 5-HT1a autoreceptor in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN).


Cannabidiol connects to neurotransmitters in the brain that regulate chemical constituents such as dopamine, serotonin and glutamate. Dopamine controls the reward and pleasure centres as well as emotional responses. Serotonin controls mood balance, social behaviour, sleep, memory and overall happiness and wellbeing. The anxiolytic actions of CBD promote a homeostasis regarding these areas that effect the personality and cognitive behaviours/reactions.
Clinical trials have been done regarding the effects of various dosages of Cannabidiol on humans and their interactions regarding several mental and emotional states.

The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology stated ‘CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment, and discomfort in their speech performance. The Journal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Association stated “One of the first effects of CBD to be observed was its sedative action…sleep-inducing properties and increase in total sleep were described. CBD significantly increased the number of subjects that slept for seven or more hours.”


Associated Ailments

• Anxiety
• Social Anxiety Disorder
• Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
• Insomnia


Cannabidiol has been researched on many levels to prove its therapeutic actions regarding mammalian physiology in relation to performance. This concluded that it
promotes heart, joint and brain health along with an increase in immune function.
Cognitively, CBD encourages neurogenesis and neuroplasticity that repairs brain damage from concussions by building new brain cells along with protecting them from future injury.
Physiologically, CBD acts as an antiinflammatory and decreases the frequency of muscle spasms by regulating calcium ion production, known to constrict muscles.
Cannabinoid Type 1 receptors exist in our bone marrow to aid in minor fractures to more serious broken bones. CBD interacts with cytokine production, the signalling proteins synthesized and secreted as immunomodulation agents which balance initiation and resolution of inflammation.
It also inhibits cell proliferation (rapid cell growth) and induction of T-regulatory cells that modulate the immune system.


Just like us, our furry friends need proper nutrition and exercise to maintain a balanced healthy life. When our companions experience health ailments, they require treatment and medicine – preferably natural – to support their recovery. CBD or cannabidiol is a nonintoxicating molecular compound found in cannabis and hemp plants proven to be an effective holistic treatment for a wide range of health conditions, ailments and diseases. Found in all mammals, the Endocannabinoid System comprises receptors, enzymes and endocannabinoids we produce naturally that CBD interacts with when they enter our body. So yes, our bodies and our pets’ bodies are designed to intake cannabinoids to build and repair proper cellular functions.
In fact, CBD has been scientifically proven to modulate and repair many physiological systems in the brain and body. Household pets including dogs and cats have experience an increase in joint movement and reduced pain as well as a decrease in separation anxiety after consuming CBD.


Epilepsy is a chronic spectrum condition varying in severity and type of seizure on an individual basis and is the fourth most common neurological disorder according to the Epilepsy Foundation.
The Official Journal of the International League Against Epilepsy, Epilepsia, conducted a study aiming to provide evidence of cannabidiols therapeutic actions as an anti-convulsant.
The hippocampus is a hub in the brain for the exchange of information, and seizures can occur when this exchange is disrupted.
CBD can regulate this function to support its anticonvulsant actions.
NMDA glutamate receptors within nerve cells play a major role in memory and learning, cannabinoids may have a distinct site of interaction on these receptors and act to protect neurons and glial cells.


The World Health Organization stated, “In general, CBD has been found to have relatively low toxicity, although not all potential effects have been explored… It has no effect on embryonic development (limited research)… There is potential for CBD to be associated with drug interactions through inhibition of some cytochrome P450 enzymes, but it is not yet clear whether these effects occur at physiological concentrations”.
Please verify specific medications with your doctor for specific sites of drug metabolism*

Most Commonly Asked Questions


They key difference between CBD and THC is that unlike THC, cannabidiol is 100% non-intoxicating and does not produce the adverse sensation of being “high.”

CBD comes in many variations and can be taken as a general immune and cognitive booster, as a preventative or as an alternative remedy to common ailments. CBD products include topical lotions and ointments (beauty and medicinal), aromatherapy, tinctures (oil based), vaporizers, ingestibles (drink and food), capsules, intranasal sprays and many more.

What’s the difference between Hemp and Marijuana?

Marijuana contains high amounts of the intoxicating cannabinoid delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is used for therapeutic and medical purposes. Hemp is grown for the production of seed and fiber, containing low amounts of THC but high amounts of a nonintoxicating cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD). CBD has become highly recognized in the medical community for its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotectant properties.
Marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated on a genetic level; hemp more similar to Cannabis Indica than Cannabis Sativa.
99.9% purity

Where is Calyx CBD derived from?

Calyx CBD is derived from non-GMO, organic mature industrialized hemp stalks. It is CO2 extracted and then winterized to form a crystalline tested at 99.9% purity.
All Calyx products, ingredients, and equipment are pharmaceutical grade, regulated through a Health Canada standard.


What carrier agents are used in Calyx tinctures?

Calyx tincture series contains pharmaceutical grade MCT (medium chain triglyceride from coconut oil) and Grapeseed oil carrier agents and is a sub-lingual application. The effect of these carriers amplifies cannabidiols natural anti-inflammatory properties to boost immune health.


Are hemp extracted cannabinoids as good as marijuana?

The molecular structure remains consistent regardless of the plant variety. Marijuana has been grown to produce higher percentages of THC and lower non-intoxicating cannabinoids including CBD, CBC, CBG, CBN etc., whereas hemp naturally has high CBD percentages.

What is the right dosage?

Any holistic, natural remedy is specific to the individual using it for their own medicinal needs. Each presenting ailment and true cause for it requires guided scientific and intuition based treatment. Natural remedies connect the patient to the plant and put responsibility back into their own hands to self-heal.
Everyone’s individual bioavailability and endocannabinoid tone is variable, thus everyone’s dosage and healing journey will be different. The World Health Organization conducted a study on Cannabidiol late 2017 that states cannabidiol is “generally well tolerated, with a good safety profile.” Their dosage framework ranged from 100mg-800mg per day on human subjects, from a Veterinarian perspective their Tier level dosage is based on weight from 0.05mg per lb, to 0.125mg per lb and finally 0.25mg per lb.



What are the benefits of using Grapeseed oil?

Grapeseed oil is high in omega-6 fatty acids and vitamin E. This makes it fat-soluble, an anti-inflammatory and an antioxidant.



What are the benefits of using MCT oil?

MCT is a medium chain triglyceride, that has antibacterial and antiviral properties. Derived from coconut oil, it is translucent and tasteless.
Easily digestible and processed through the liver which heightens the sublingual application.